Mining has been going on in the Iberaks for thousands of years. The distant ancestors of the Brisingr worked the mines as free-men for a time, then as slaves to Cûngin-Zar, and now, once again as free-men. During the Horgon Era, many of the other humanoids of the area suffered a similar fate. Some caves of Ice Cap have painting made long ago by the goliath. They show a period when they were in chains and being led by giants. This an obvious reference to the Horgon Era, when two Titan Empires held sway over much of Ice Cap. For a time, the Cûngin-Zar ruled the western reaches, and Saer Erkjorg ruled the east.